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Forest Carbon Offsets: Resources

Here are some of the most valuable resources on the topics of cap and trade, forest carbon markets, offsets, protocols, and the Western Climate Initiative.

Cap and Trade

Durning, Alan, “Cap and Trade 101, A Climate Policy Primer,” Sightline Institute (September 2008) www.sightline.org/research/energy/res_pubs/cap-and-trade-101/Cap-Trade_online.pdf

Pew Center on Global Climate Change and Pew Center on the States, “Climate Change 101, Cap and Trade” (February, 2008) www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/Cap&Trade.pdf

Sheeran, Kristen and James Barrett, “A Critical Question in the Climate Debate,” E3 Network (January 8, 2008) www.e3network.org/resources/SheeranBarrett2008.pdf.

Victor, David G. and Danny Cullenward, “Making Carbon Markets Work,” Scientific American  (September 24, 2007) www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=making-carbon-markets-wor

Washington State Department of Ecology, “Economic Analysis of Cap and Trade Program, Task Four: Analysis of Options for Limiting Market Manipulation,” (November 11, 2008) www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/2008CTdocs/10102008_LimitingMarketManipulation.pdf

Forest Carbon Markets

Binkley, C., S. Beebe, D. New, and Bettina von Hagen, “An Ecosystem-Based Forestry Investment Strategy for the Coastal Temperate Rainforests of North America,” Ecotrust (April 7, 2006) www.ecotrust.org/forests/investment_strategy.pdf

Brown, Sandra, “Opportunities for carbon sequestration in the forestry and agricultural sector,” PowerPoint presented to Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Winrock International (June 29, 2007) dnr.wi.gov/environmentprotect/gtfgw/documents/McTF20070629.pdf

Gorte, Ross W. and Jonathan L. Ramseur, “Forest Carbon Markets: Potential and Drawbacks,” Congressional Research Service (July 3, 2008) ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/08Aug/RL34560.pdf

Maine Forest Service, Environment Northeast, Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Maine Department of Environmental Protection, “Recommendations to RGGI for Including New Forest Offset Categories: A Summary,” (June 11, 2008)  

Stavins, Robert and Kenneth Richards, “The Cost of U.S. Forest-Based Carbon Sequestration,” Pew Center on Global Climate Change (January, 2005) www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/Sequest_Final.pdf

Union of Concerned Scientists, “Recognizing Forests’ Role in Climate Change,” (October 22, 2002) www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/forest_solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in.html

Washington Forest Protection Association, “Position Paper on Carbon Protocols,Northwest Forest Landowners and Forest Product Producers (January 18, 2008) www.wfpa.org/pdf/policy/NorthwestForestLandownersAndForestProductProducersPositionPaperOnCarbonProtocols.pdf

Wayburn, Laurie A., Jerry F. Franklin, John C. Gordon, Clark S. Binkley, David J. Mladenoff, Norman L. Christensen, Jr., “Forest Carbon in the United States:
Opportunities & Options for Private Lands,” Pacific Forest Trust (2000, updated 2007) www.pacificforest.org/publications/index.html

World Resources Institute, Greenhouse Gas Protocol, “The Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry, Guidance for GHG Project Accounting” (October 2006) www.wri.org/publication/land-use-land-use-change-and-forestry-guidance-greenhouse-gas-project-accounting

von Hagen, Bettina and Michael Burnett, “Emerging Markets for Carbon Stored by Northwest Forests” from Forests, Carbon and Climate Change: A Synthesis of Science Findings, Oregon Forest Resources Institute (2006)


Broekhoff, Derik and Kathryn Zyla, “Outside the Cap: Opportunities and Limitations of Greenhouse Gas Offsets,” World Resource Institute (December, 2008) pdf.wri.org/outside_the_cap.pdf

Government Accounting Office (GAO), “Lessons Learned from the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme and the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism” (November, 2008)  www.gao.gov/new.items/d09151.pdf

Kollmuss, Anja and Michael Lazarus, Carrie Lee and Clifford Polycarp, “A Review of Offset Programs: Trading Systems, Funds, Protocols, Standards and Retailers” (October 2008) www.sei.se/pubs/Offset_kollmuss_final.pdf

Kollmus, Anja, (SEI-US), Helge Zink (Tricorona), and Clifford Polycarp (SEI-US), “Making Sense of the Voluntary Carbon Market, A Comparison of Carbon Offset Standards” World Wildlife Fund Germany (March 2008) http://assets.panda.org/downloads/vcm_report_final.pdf

Offset Quality Initiative, “Ensuring Offset Quality, Integrating High Quality Greenhouse Gas Offsets Into North American Cap-and-Trade Policy” (July 2008) www.offsetqualityinitiative.org/briefings.html

Offset Quality Initiative, “Comments to the Federal Trade Commission
Regarding Carbon Offset Workshop” (January 25, 2008) www.climatetrust.org/pdfs/OQI_FTC_Comments.pdf

Trexler Climate and Energy Services, “A Consumers’Guide to Retail Offset Providers,” Clean Air, Cool Planet (December, 2006) www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/ConsumersGuidetoCarbonOffsets.pdf

Protocol Development

California Climate Action Registry (CCAR), “Revised Forest Carbon Protocol, Draft” (December, 2008) www.climateregistry.org/resources/docs/protocols/project/forest/forest-revisions/draft-forest-project-protocol-december-2008.pdf

Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance, “Climate, Community and Biodiversity Project Design Standards, Second Edition” (December 2008) www.climate-standards.org/standards/pdf/ccb_standards_second_edition_december_2008.pdf

Ecotrust, "Comments on Final Draft Version of the Climate Action Reserve Forest Project Protocol" (May 2009) http://www.ecotrust.org/ecosystemservices/Ecotrust_Comments_CAR_Forest_Project_Protocol.pdf

Partridge, Craig and Stephen Bernath, “Forest Sector Workgroup on Climate Change Mitigation, Final Report,” Washington Departments of Natural Resources and Ecology (

Voluntary Carbon Standard, “Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use Projects” (2007.1, November 18, 2008) www.v-c-s.org/docs/Guidance for AFOLU Projects.pdf

Western Climate Initiative

Swanson, Mark, “Comparison of the impacts of forest practices regulations on carbon storage in Washington, Oregon, California, and British Columbia,” Washington State Department of Ecology (January 17, 2008) www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/2008CTdocs/10102008_forestpractices_carbonstorage.pdf

Western Climate Advocates Network (WeCAN), Comments to Western Climate Initiative on incorporating forest sector and land use/land use change strategies into overall program design, (July 22, 2008) www.westernclimateinitiative.org/ewebeditpro/items/O104F18794.PDF


Our Work

Ecotrust Forests & Ecosystem Services

A Landowner's Guide to Forest Carbon Offsets


Learn More

Forestry Balances Profit and Conservation in the Pacific Northwest (by Brent Davies), Solutions magazine, January 2012

"Unexplored Potential of Northwest Forests" by Bettina von Hagen, from Old Growth in a New World (Island Press 2009) 50kb pdf

Emerging Markets for Carbon Stored by Northwest Forests (200kb pdf)

An Ecosystem-Based Forestry Investment Strategy for the Coastal Temperate Rainforests of North America (1.3mb pdf)

Redefining Stewardship: Public Lands and Rural Communities in the Pacific Northwest

Roots of Prosperity: The Pacific Coast Watershed Partnership


Brent Davies
Vice President, Forests and Ecosystem Services
tel: 503.467.0761
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WWRI Program Coordinator
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